Mendelian Genetics Of Corn Lab Answers Carolina


Dihybird Cross Punnett Squares - genetic probability with two traits. Lab Report on Pea plants and Corn. Although the morphological differences between maize and teosinte are spectacular in appearance they are conspecific genetically. Anther? Produces the pollen (sperm) of a flower 7. Today, more than 54 percent of American crops contain GMOs and roughly 70 percent of processed foods harbor at least one genetically modified ingredient, according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, a nonprofit education and. Based on what you can conclude about its genetic makeup when told that the corn plant parent cross (P) pictured in Figure 2 is between a completely dominant plant and a completely recessive plant, A. A large ear of corn has a total of 433 grains, including 271 Purple & starchy, 73 Purple & sweet, 63 Yellow & starchy, and 26 Yellow & sweet Your Tentative Hypothesis : This ear of corn was produced by a dihybrid cross (PpSs x PpSs) involving two pairs of heterozygous genes resulting in a theoretical (expected) ratio of 9:3:3:1. Craig Savage 74,172 views. Genotype Song Human Inheritance Song with Punnett Squares. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. 290-292, C29:. Mendelian Genetics in Corn INTRODUCTION Mendelian traits refer to phenotypical features whose pattern of inheritance follows Mendel’s theories about the inheritance of traits. BIO 111 Late Nite Labs Genetics of Corn Late Nite Labs Genetics of Corn SHORT ANSWER Experiment 1: A Monohybrid Cross Directions: Use complete sentences and bold the answers and have them in a different color. Chi Square Problem: An ear of corn has a total of 381 grains, including 216 Purple & Smooth, 79 Purple & Shrunken, 65 Yellow & Smooth, and 21 Yellow & Shrunken. If you have a specific result you should also state it. Mendel’s experiment is known as a two-factor cross. Lab # 10 Mendelian Genetics in Corn INTRODUCTION Mendelian traits refer to phenotypical features whose pattern of inheritance follows Mendel's theories about the inheritance of traits. Count the number of purple and yellow kernels in five of the rows on your ear of corn and record the number on the chart. In this way, the powerful genetic diversity of all the organisms on the planet can be harnessed. Genetics and Chi-square Problem Set Page 2 3. Which dye diffused the fastest in corn syrup? Red Dye In your chosen material? Lemon Concentrate, Blue Dye 2. Our students, staff, and faculty conduct research, teaching, and Extension on ways to produce crops that feed the world, while promoting biodiversity, building soil, improving water resources and sequestering carbon. To build comprehension of Mendelian genetics by analyzing test crosses in corn To study human chromosomes and understand the consequences of chromosomal abnormalities that occur during meiosis Lab Background: Mitosis is the mechanism by which the chromosomes of eukaryotes are. A Sexual production B Asexual reproduction C DNA D Viral. Even now, research scientists investigate. Our world-class undergraduate and graduate programs prepare students to answer environmental and agricultural challenges, building on our rich history of growing agricultural and environmental sciences in North Carolina and around the globe. The law essentially states that if no evolution is occurring, then an equilibrium of allele frequencies will remain in effect in each succeeding generation of sexually. In fact, Mendelian inheritance patterns are exceedingly rare, especially in humans. _____ The law states that each organism contains two alleles for each trait, and the alleles segregate during the formation of gametes. Mendel's Law of segregation states that monohybrid cross for genotypic ratio 1:2:1 and phenotypic ratio is 3: 1. Chi Square Problem: An ear of corn has a total of 381 grains, including 216 Purple & Smooth, 79 Purple & Shrunken, 65 Yellow & Smooth, and 21 Yellow & Shrunken. In this Mendelian inheritance worksheet, students will use a pedigree to complete 4 short answer questions about recessive and dominant traits. Favorite Answer so we don't have the table 2, so we don't have the data. Mendel tracked the segregation of parental genes and their appearance in the offspring as dominant or recessive traits. AP Biology - SC6243 Scope and Sequence Unit Topic Lesson Lesson Objectives Membranes and Transport Cell Membranes Virtual Lab - The Purification of Hemoglobin Lab: Diffusion Across a Semi-permeable Membrane Describe the process of diffusion. Genetic traits are determined by genes, or small segments of DNA carried on chromosomes that determine physical characteristics. Undergraduate genetics courses, North Carolina State University; Materials developed for teachers and lay public, or by students; Animation Library (PCR, Southern blot, sequencing, polymorphisms), Cold Spring Harbor Lab DNA Learning Center ; Blazing a Genetic Trail - online book, Howard Hughes Medical Institutes. Start studying BIO LAB FINAL: MENDELIAN GENETICS OF CORN. An interactive Punnett Square calculator to work out patterns of inheritance for any autosomal recessive genetic trait or disease. For lab two the purpose of the lab was to observe the basic techniques of culturing flies and set up a crosses between different fruit flies and to provide proper nomenclature. Genetics in the effects of mendelian genetics laboratory, ebooks and drosophila bipectinata species they have spent a peliminary report ipr infringement; e. 19, 9 review Lab Examination 1 Lab 8 Practice genetics problems, human karyotype 8. This is the first in what I hope to be a series of postings. Mendelian Genetics- Corn Page 3 of 4 Data Table: Purple K Yellow K Total 9. Define and explain the Mendel’s second law (Law of Independent Assortment) and its relation with meiosis. Prior to Mendel, most people believed inheritance was due to a blending of parental 'essences', much like how mixing blue and yellow paint will produce a […]. The answer is to use a statistical test. Use sampling to determine phenotypic ratios of a visible trait in the corn. Chi Square with Candy (Lab) Corn and Chi Square Analysis Practice Problems with Chi Square. The most striking example, chromothripsis, is characterized by tens or hundreds of rearrangements confined to a single chromosome or to local regions over a few. An ear of corn is actually a collection of over a hundred offspring, neatly packaged onto a cob, able to be stored long term, perfect for studying genetics. dominant traits mask recessive ones). These competencies were developed in recognition of the fact that we are entering an era of personalized medicine that includes genetic risk assessment for complex diseases (those with contributions from multiple genes and the. For example, some pea plants have purple flowers and others have white flowers. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce, and test students on the concept of cellular reproduction, introduction to heredity: meiosis, Gregor Mendel and his peas, genetics, DNA, protein synthesis, and genetic engineering. The Punnett square (Figures 11. In most cases, this disorder is caused by a defect in either the MLH1 or MSH2 gene, but other genes can cause Lynch syndrome, including MLH3 , MSH6 , TGFBR2 , PMS1 , and PMS2. dominant traits mask recessive ones). ) (c) In yeast, 1 cM of genetic distance corresponds to 3,500 base pairs of physical distance. THIS LAB IS BEST USING THE REAL EARS OF CORN BUT CAN BE DONE WITH THE PHOTOS AT THE END. If a dog possesses the dominant phenotype for the extension allele (genotype EE or Ee), then it will display the fur colouration determined by its brown locus genotype, while a dog with the recessive extension trait (ee) will have a yellow coat with either. Product Highlights Uncover and experience the mechanism of Mendelian genetics with Wisconsin Fast Plants® Connected to Unit 5: Heredity, topic 5. From these experiments, Mendel formulated what is now known as Mendel's law of segregation. Genetics Problem Sets with linked answers (The Biology Project) LabBench Genetics of Organisms Virtual Fruit Fly Lab. Your Life Science Pacing Guide for 3-Dimensional Teaching. If offspring homozygous for the AT allele (ATAT) look just like teosinte, and offspring homozygous for the AM allele (AMAM) look just like maize, identify: a. Standard 2a: ___is the production of offspring by one parent without the joining of a sperm or egg. PAPER # 2 due * November 10 Excused (Veterans’ Day) Week 13 (Nov 13 - 17) DNA Structure and DNA Duplication. Standard 2d: Mendel concluded that the alleles for tall stems in pea plants are dominant. Can you infer from this data which trait is dominant and which is recessive? Explain why. Investigation 3: Comparing DNA Sequences to Understand Evolutionary Relationships with BLAST - Pages 41-50. 7 th Grade Science - Mr. Sample of Student Work for the Fill In The Atoms Worksheet. 3 Mendelian Genetics 5. Punnett, who devised the approach. Based on what you can conclude about its genetic makeup when told that the corn plant parent cross (P) pictured in Figure 2 is between a completely dominant plant and a completely recessive plant, A. When two little d genes are paired together they dilute the coat color of the Labrador that carries them. So in the corn lab, a kernel of corn has an equal chance of being purple and plump as it does purple and wrinkled (or yellow and plump vs yellow and wrinkled) because the alleles separate into gametes independently of one another during meiosis when the gametes are being formed and the chromosomes (with the genes) are separating. In a particular cross of corn plants, the probability of an offspring being tall is 1/2 and the probability of a kernel being colored is 3/4. A brief analysis of the student work for this activity reveals that the a majority of the students are able to use the periodic table to determine the number of protons, neutrons, electrons, chemical symbol, and atomic mass. Even now, research scientists investigate. The rapid development of genomic sequencing technologies has decreased the cost of genetic analysis to the extent that it seems plausible that genome-scale sequencing could have widespread availability in pediatric care. (Monsanto has a 1 percent market share. Genetic diversity is crucial for adapting to new environments, as more variation in genes leads to more individuals of a population having favorable traits to withstand harsh conditions. 6 - Scientific Explanations & Theories. I put this as the expected value, but I don't think it is correct because my numbers are very large. HW: Complete Bikini Bottom Genetics worksheet. Analysis linkage and genetic mapping. North Carolina Standard Course of Study North Dakota Academic Content Standards Ohio. In this lab, I was able to apply the Chi Square and Mendelian Genetics to a part of the real world, observing the genotypes and phenotypes of Indian Corn. Mendelian Genetics of Corn Kit | Carolina. To relate the chromosome theory of heredity to current practices in genetic counseling 3. Genetics research. What is paper chromatography? 4. com Intermediate—Easy to perform; requires some background knowledge. 2 - Using Mathematics. 1-Read about one trait crosses and the Law of Segregation Pg. No, both daughter cells will have the same number of chromosomes. C-Fern® Lab Part 3 BIOL 202 LAB 7 C-Fern Investigations - Genetics in Action Mendelian Genetics Part 3. docx page 3 of 7 The images below show C-Fern® spores 24 hours after having been spread on the surface of basic C-Fern® medium in Petri dishes. South Carolina Science Grade 7 Section 2: Genetics Since Mendel In this Section:. This resource consists of two labs. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. 317 Problem-Solving Lab 12-2, p. In order to observe both laws, the different phenotypes were counted in the F 2 generation of corn provided by the instructor. Also Refer: Mendelian Genetics. Students apply the principles of Mendelian genetics to analyze the results of genetic crosses between stickleback fish with different traits, or phenotypes. Pathway Tools Academic License. Genetics Problems 1. 9) I Can Statements Gregor Mendel and Meiosis Song Phenotype vs. Suppose you ran across a brown, male, naked mole rat in class and decided to find out if he was BB or Bb by using a testcross. The 2013 AP Biology Exam Reflections. Although he did not know it at the time, Gregor Mendel used monohybrid crosses to identify dominant and recessive traits in his landmark experiments with peas. (2) Review the textbook and try to answer the questions in the chapter(s) after the class. reasons for introducing corn genetics in the classroom are obvious—a single ear holds a large number of progeny and a variety of ears are available that represent basic inheritance patterns, such as the monohybrid cross (3:1), the dihybrid cross (9:3:3:1), and more complex genetic patterns illustrating gene. These genes are located in the DNA, which is of course in the nucleus. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Genetics offers additional tools and resources to support your curriculum, all free of charge. doc), PDF File (. Before requesting a new license, please check to see if your organization already has a license, in which case you can receive a software distribution under that existing license. Ap Biology Chapter 16 Reading Guide Answer. Lab 9: Mendelian Genetics. As a third-generation plant scientist, I had a lot of. Complete "Designing and conducting your Investigation" section page 49- answer all bullet-ed elements on page 50 for the gene you are. Standard 2d: Mendel concluded that the alleles for tall stems in pea plants are dominant. Alleles aren't always fully dominant or recessive to one another, but may instead display codominance or incomplete dominance. Maize is an excellent choice for genetic study for the very same reasons that Mendel chose peas. They will make you ♥ Physics. In this lab, we will look at Mendelian genetics and also some ways in which a few. 8 years ago. Abstract This study was on the Mendelian phenotype ratio of corn and sorghum. Dihybrid Cross in Corn INTRODUCTION: A dihybrid cross is a cross between individuals that involves two pairs of contrasting traits. #N#ADDITIONAL INFORMATION. 2h: Recognize that genetic engineering techniques provide great potential and. Anderson's corn field and lived close by. 7 th Grade Science - Mr. Mendelian laws of inheritance. Each chromosome has only one copy of each gene; therefore each gamete only gets one allele. Compare your group and class percent differences. In incomplete dominance, neither allele is dominant over the other so the outcome is a blend of both traits. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *. 1 ear of corn/group. Mendel discovered that certain traits can mask one another (i. Prepare your students for medical and lab tech careers with Carolina's wide range of equipment, kits and models. These rules allow geneticists to predict the patterns of trait expression in animals and plants, they allow doctors to predict the probabilities of many genetic disorders, and they help. Your corn is most likely one of two crosses. Mendelian traits refer to phenotypical features whose pattern of inheritance follows Mendel's theories about the inheritance of traits. pdf), Text File (. An Introduction to Mendelian Genetics Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Mendel Genetics Lesson Plans. , the unknown mutation fails to complement torso and therefore the unknown mutation is in torso. Allow students to. The outer layer of cells of the endosperm is called the aleurone. AP Biology - SC6243 Scope and Sequence Unit Topic Lesson Lesson Objectives Membranes and Transport Cell Membranes Virtual Lab - The Purification of Hemoglobin Lab: Diffusion Across a Semi-permeable Membrane Describe the process of diffusion. Introduce genetic corn cobs (3:1 ratio; purple : yellow kernels). Genetics Review Sheet: All Crosses. Web Expeditions. It is a myth propagated by guess whom? to say that GMOs are necessary. Biopower - the Answer to the Oil Shortage? Business Booms During the Renaissance! Butter vs. Gene transmission from generation to generation obeys. Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms. The purple corn color is dominant, and the yellow color is recessive, because there are more purple corn kernels present in this generation. Each chromosome has only one copy of each gene; therefore each gamete only gets one allele. In the first, you will observe how genes are inherited using a well-known model organism: a deck of cards. Answer Save. docx from BIO 120L at Southern New Hampshire University. In genetics experiments, what is the "F 1" generation? What is the "F 2" generation? 2. Sex Linked or Not Sex Linked Lab. The questions are found below the table. A monk, Mendel discovered the basic principles of heredity through experiments in his monastery's garden. Lab or Experiment: Labs (Genetics Science Learning Center at the University of Utah) Lesson Plan: Cystic Fibrosis (University of North Carolina School of Medicine) Lesson Plan: Genomics and Human Identity (National Human Genome Research Institute and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History). Showing top 8 worksheets in the category - Genetics. This field was largely derived from the works of Gregor Mendel and was later integrated with the chromosome theory. Investigation 3: Comparing DNA Sequences to Understand Evolutionary Relationships with BLAST - Pages 41-50. Observation Plan. The career information, refl ec-. In this lab, students cross hypothetical creatures and examine the progeny in order to determine the mechanism of inheritance of a particular trait. All possible combinations of the four alleles from each parent must be considered. Databases for medical genetics. If you are using this kit with less experienced biology students, you may need to make some modifications. Login to reply the answers Post; Carol. Failure to do so procure remainder in points substance deducted. The tripartite hypotheses proposes that the ancestor of domesticated maize was a now extinct wild pod-popcorn; that teosinte originated. Dihybrid Inheritance - Dihybrid cross is cross between two contrast traits of same species. txt) or read online for free. Self pollination of plants known to be true-breeding for pigmented corn kernels yielded the following unexpected ratio of corn kernel offspring:. Sorghum seedlings are smaller than corn due to smaller seed size. This best-selling text continues to provide understandable explanations of complex, analytical topics and recognizes the importance of teaching students how to become effective problem solvers. Answer Key- Punnett Squares Generic Steps & Example Problem. 1 Which statement describes a component of the original cell theory that was removed because of the new scientific knowledge? 1. The idea itself was not new ( 58 , 64 ); however, Beadle went further than prior authors, using experimental results to develop this idea fully. Standard 2d: Mendel concluded that the alleles for tall stems in pea plants are dominant. We will examine …. To take the Mendelian Genetics Quiz, simply click on the "Start The Quiz" link below and select the correct answer for each question. BIO SOL Review 15 - Genetics & Evolution (28) 1. A good follow up question: "How have you heard about DNA, genetics, and heredity?" Examples may include: the news, internet, TV shows like CSI, and movies such as The Incredible Hulk. Worksheets, learning resources, and math practice sheets for teachers to print. © Copyright, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Genetics of Corn. There were 111 RS, 52 Rs, 341 rS, and 87 rs kernels. is a recessive genetic trait c. Investigating and Applying Genetics: Corn (Developed by SEPUP) kit #603S. In this experiment, we will use maize Zea mays subsp. Counting corn kernels, breeding fruit flies and measuring larvae are valuable laboratory exercises, but for imparting a thorough understanding and mastery of the principles of genetics, and particularly those of mendelian heredity, the experience of the authors has found nothing equal to persistent drill in solving a wide diversity of problems. These genes are located in the DNA, which is of course in the nucleus. We are applying science to advance crop production systems while protecting and improving air, soil and water quality. I divide it up by Mendelian Genetics and Human Genetics. Transmission/Mendelian Genetics Get an overview of allele properties and Mendel's laws. The primary NIH organization for research on Genetic Disorders is the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to health information from the National Institutes of Health and other federal government agencies. A large ear of corn has a total of 433 grains, including 271 Purple & starchy, 73 Purple & sweet, 63 Yellow & starchy, and 26 Yellow & sweet Your Tentative Hypothesis : This ear of corn was produced by a dihybrid cross (PpSs x PpSs) involving two pairs of heterozygous genes resulting in a theoretical (expected) ratio of 9:3:3:1. Sex-linked inheritance is a type of non-Mendelian inheritance because it opposes Mendel’s first law, which postulates that each trait is always conditioned by two factors (alleles). This trait is passed genetically from parents to their children, so that if a person has. Objectives: The goals of this lab is to. Agronomy is the science and practice of growing plants that feed the world and doing it in a way that improves the planet. CF is inherited in a Mendelian fashion, and the allele for CF is recessive. North Carolina Standard Course of Study North Dakota Academic Content Standards Ohio. From your group data only, determine the genotypes of the parents of your ear of corn. You will be given an ear of corn was produced by a dihybrid cross involving two pairs of heterozygous genes resulting in a. Start studying BIO LAB FINAL: MENDELIAN GENETICS OF CORN. For the questions you still did not answer, highlight or. org are unblocked. An important question to answer in any genetic experiment is how can we decide if our data fits any of the Mendelian ratios we have discussed. Covers basic Mendelian genetics, including segregation and independent assortment of alleles, dominance, genotype and phenotype, expected ratios, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, and chi-square. (P = purple color, p = yellow color; S = Smooth texture, s = shrunken texture) The purpose of our lab was to examine the traits exhibited on the kernels of corn found on five different rows and discern the genotypes of the parents of the ear of corn. Chapter 4 – Understanding Genetics. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (CAES) is the Connecticut state government's agricultural experiment station, a state government component that engages in scientific research and public outreach in agriculture and related fields. Students first conduct crosses to determine the relationships between four different coat color alleles. Lab Title: Karyotyping. Suppose you ran across a brown, male, naked mole rat in class and decided to find out if he was BB or Bb by using a testcross. Standard 2d: Mendel concluded that the alleles for tall stems in pea plants are dominant. MATERIALS: Appropriate ear of corn. They perform genetic crosses and begin to see how traits are inherited. Non-Mendelian inheritance; Probability; Activity. These genes are located in the DNA, which is of course in the nucleus. Chi Square with Candy (Lab) Corn and Chi Square Analysis Practice Problems with Chi Square. Create a punnett square or use a mathematical system to determine the phenotype ratio. What are the chances that these parents will have three children who have both normal and mutant hemoglobin. AP BIOLOGY WEBLABS - This site has a virtual lab on each of the "dirty dozen" AP Biology labs. Mendelian Genetics of Corn - Free download as PDF File (. Why study Genetics? Sydney Brenner, writing in the 100th issue of Trends in Genetics in 1993, made the prediction that genetics as a separate subject would have disappeared by the year 2000, because all biology would be gene-centred and all biologists would be geneticists. (Label your answer with the proper units. Week 24 Mar 2-6: Mendelian Genetics: Corn Week 25 Mar 9-13: Mendelian Genetics: Blood Typing Week 26 Mar 11-15: DNA Extraction From A Fruit. Chi Square Problem: An ear of corn has a total of 381 grains, including 216 Purple & Smooth, 79 Purple & Shrunken, 65 Yellow & Smooth, and 21 Yellow & Shrunken. Which set of data comes closest to the expected ratio? 2. Mendelian Genetics in Corn Kernel Shape & Applying mendelian laws kernel shape Applying mendelian laws The gene Su controls the endosperm composition Normal corn endosperm is high in amylose starch in the dominant condition. Genetics and Chi-square Problem Set Page 2 3. Lab Quiz # 9. Mendel's explanation of the results of a dihybrid cross Given the principles revealed in a monohybrid cross, Mendel hypothesized that the result of two characters segregating simultaneously (a dihybrid cross) would be the product of their independent occurrence. Chi Square Problem: An ear of corn has a total of 381 grains, including 216 Purple & Smooth, 79 Purple & Shrunken, 65 Yellow & Smooth, and 21 Yellow & Shrunken. Corn has been subjected to more genetic analysis than any other plant. Printable Version. Andersen describes the virtual fly lab. A major science- and technology-oriented research university, Clemson challenges students to excellence every day. Genetics is the study of heredity and variation in organisms. AP Biology Exam Connections. c Predict the causes or effects of a change in, or disruption to, one or more components in a biological system based on data. While Miescher was isolating and discovering DNA in the 1860s, Austrian monk and botanist Johann Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) was experimenting with garden peas, demonstrating and documenting basic patterns of inheritance, now known as Mendel’s laws. L13a Mendelian Genetics- Corn Page 3 of 6 Data Table: Purple K Yellow Total 9. Genetics and heredity I. Let the gel dry on gel support film or in your staining tray (plastic weigh boats) on your lab bench for 3 -. The first law he created is the law of segregation. Mendelian inheritance using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster - the principle of segregation and the principle of ind ependent assortment. Prior to Mendel, most people believed inheritance was due to a blending of parental 'essences', much like how mixing blue and yellow paint will produce a […]. is carried only by females in this family b. They perform genetic crosses and begin to see how traits are inherited. Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, observed heritable traits in the common pea plant and discovered several key basic principles in Genetics. Dragon Genetics Lab Answers 1a. Give hints about how to effectively score kernels for color. Morgan Kimmerle Monday Lab Dr. Mendelian genetics KEY (Sec 37) 1- An organism with genotype AaEEDd can make how many different gametes (list each one)? (1 pt) It could make 4 different types of gametes: AED, AEd, aED, aED. With an address on Mendel Circle in Greenwood, South Carolina, this non profit diagnostic testing laboratory has basically written the book on diagnosing and understanding genetic disorders. inheritance of anthocyanin pigment in leaf color of wisconsin fast plants ( brassica rapa ) follow mendelian genetics in monohybrid cross but not in dihybrid. Stevenson graduated from the Bowman Gray. These rules allow geneticists to predict the patterns of trait expression in animals and plants, they allow doctors to predict the probabilities of many genetic disorders, and they help. Week of 5/15: Revisit Genetics and Cells Mon: Revisit heredity with Dragon Genetics (You should answer Q. This field was largely derived from the works of Gregor Mendel and was later integrated with the chromosome theory. Ford V ARIATIONS in the color of corn kernels (Zea mays L. Mendelian Genetics in Corn INTRODUCTION Mendelian traits refer to phenotypical features whose pattern of inheritance follows Mendel’s theories about the inheritance of traits. non-Mendelian genetics corn diversity lab blood typing lab Snorks activity. It states that the two members of a gene pair (alleles) segregate (separate) from each other in the formation of gametes. C Perform chi-square hypothesis testing. The male flowers are on the tassels, which bear anthers and pro-duce pollen. This indicates that B is located between A and C as given below:. 4 Non-Mendelian Genetics Topic 5. Product Highlights Uncover and experience the mechanism of Mendelian genetics with Wisconsin Fast Plants® Connected to Unit 5: Heredity, topic 5. These phenotypes and numbers are entered in Columns 1 and 2 of the following Table 2. Inheritance of Kernel Color in Corn: Explanations & Investigations Rosemary H. What proportion of purple kernels is expected in the progeny of the monohybrid cross in Experiment 1? 2. Round or Wrinkled; Mendel's Peas Explained: Belinda Clarke Pea plants growing in a 19 th century monastery garden may seem a long way from the advanced genetic tools used by scientists today, yet those plants were to inspire Gregor Mendel to lay the foundations of modern day genetics. 360Science™ blends the best of student-engaging digital content with easily adaptable hands-on labs to offer your students a uniquely comprehensive learning experience. The mode of inheritance for an organism's trait can be sex-linked, autosomal, etc. What are the chances that these parents will have three children who have both normal and mutant hemoglobin. Genetics of corn lab (Dihybrid cross) Genetics of corn lab (Dihybrid cross) Skip navigation Sign in. Lab Quiz # 9. Standard 2d: Mendel concluded that the alleles for tall stems in pea plants are dominant. South Carolina Science Grade 7 Section 2: Genetics Since Mendel In this Section:. Genetic diversity is crucial for adapting to new environments, as more variation in genes leads to more individuals of a population having favorable traits to withstand harsh conditions. (Label your answer with the proper units. Choose your answer to the question and click 'Continue' to see how you did. Remember that a P-value of less that 0. Related Internet Sites. Mendelian Genetic Inheritance Angela Bontempi June 16, 2019 1 Data Activity 1 Data Table. org are unblocked. Mendel's First Law - the law of segregation; during gamete formation each member of the allelic pair separates from the other member to form the genetic constitution of the gamete Confirmation of Mendel's First Law Hypothesis. Seed kits enable you to investigate different genetic traits, including the albino mutation. There are 32 chromosomes in each daughter cell. Beadle and Emerson were convinced on genetic grounds that teosinte was the ancestor of domesticated maize. in 1930, Beadle stayed on at Cornell another year. You will also learn about the genetics and development of cancer. Why did he need to count so many? b. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. BIO Lab 14 Mendelian Genetics Experiment 1 Punnett SquareCrosses - 00034510 Tutorials for Question of Biology and General Biology. Louis, Missouri. 3: Mendelian Genetics Addresses content in Enduring Understanding IST-1. Students apply the principles of Mendelian genetics to analyze the results of genetic crosses between stickleback fish with different traits, or phenotypes. A new set of genetics and genomics competencies for nurses was introduced in 2006 (Consensus Panel on Genetic/Genomic Nursing Competencies, 2006). Start studying Lab 16: Corn Genetics- Quiz and Lab. Your Life Science Pacing Guide for 3-Dimensional Teaching. Genetics is the study of heredity and variation in organisms. In our case the theoretical distribution is 3:1 and 9:3:3:1. Kavinmozhi Caldwell, Spurthi Tarugu. Students will apply their knowledge of genetics and Punnett squares to calculate the probability of genotypes and use a pedigree chart. A look at cichlid fish in Lake Victoria. 19, 16 review Lab 10 Algae 16. Biology 101 Test 1 Study Questions. Lab Quiz # 8. Mendelian Genetics: Lessons from the Fruit Fly 80 BS/LBS 158H 8. Genetics, DNA, and Heredity The Basics. Online homework and grading tools for instructors and students that reinforce student learning through practice and instant feedback. BT is Bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterium. Although genetic information can be changed through mutations in DNA or RNA and errors in information transfer, biotechnology makes it possible to engineer heritable changes to yield novel protein products, such as the Bt toxin. Compare your group and class percent differences. Overview This kit has been designed for use as an introductory college-level genetics lab or, alternatively, as a high school honors, college -preparatory, or AP Biology lab. mendelian genetics of corn lab answers carolina; moh questions and answers for nurses in saudi; 150 question multiple choice answer sheet; criminal procedure practice exam and answers; lifetime health textbook chapter 6 review answers; how to answer a negative question in english; zinn chapter 9 questions and answers; picture puzzles questions. Mendel discovered that certain traits can mask one another (i. In our first experiment, both parents are homozygous, one carrying two copies of the dominant allele (R), the other two copies of the. Your corn is most likely one of two crosses. Also Refer: Mendelian Genetics. The more offspring you can count from a cross, the closer your experimental results. Drosophila: After receiving his Ph. Corn — a diploid organism — has been widely used to study and illustrate mendelian traits. By counting the number of corn kernels by color and texture, we were able to make inferences about the hereditary information (alleles) which were passed down from the parents. Problem: A large ear of corn has a total of 433 grains, including 271 Purple & starchy, 73 Purple & sweet, 63 Yellow & starchy, and 26 Yellow & sweet. : AP ENVIRONMENTAL WEBLABS - UCA labs with good descriptions and great standard and simulation labs. Ap Biology Chapter 16 Reading Guide Answer. You will also learn about the genetics and development of cancer. A major science- and technology-oriented research university, Clemson challenges students to excellence every day. Recessive - 7. 1-7 during class, Q. Explore the role of proteins in creating phenotypes. to answer this question. This kit brings Mendelian genetics into your classroom and features quick results and robust data analysis, including chi-square and Hardy-Weinberg. For the questions you still did not answer, highlight or. A complete genetics lab for advanced high school classes and up. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. American Society of Agronomy Crop Science Society of America Soil Science Society of America Certified Crop Advisers Log In My Account Due to COVID-19, our staff is working remotely. Start studying Lab 16: Corn Genetics- Quiz and Lab. Genetics Review Sheet: All Crosses. It really helps me grasp the topic and present my answer in a pleasing manner. pdf), Text File (. What proportion of purple kernels is expected in the progeny of the monohybrid cross in Experiment 1? 2. Sorghum seedlings are smaller than corn due to smaller seed size. Students learn about the work of Gregor Mendel as a way of studying modern genetics. Gregor Mendel created two main laws prior to his experiments with his growing pea plants. In peas, tall is dominant over dwarf. Genetics Part 1: Basic Mendelian - Duration: 15:06. Mendelian Genetics, Probability, Pedigrees, and Chi-Square Statistics www. Materials: Genetic Corn Seed, beakers, paper towels. Genetics and Chi-square Problem Set Page 2 3. It also—for the first time—makes it possible to breed entirely different types or species of plants with each other to create some truly novel hybrids. Solve monohybrid and dihybrid cross problems. Laboratory 8: Mendelian Genetics Overview In this lab exercise, you will learn to predict the outcome of monohybrid (one gene), dihybrid (two gene), and trihybrid (three gene) genetic crosses between individual fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). ©2013 Carolina Biological Supply Company/Printed in USA. Simple Inheritance Traits of Complete Dominance. #N#SELECT ANOTHER TUTORIAL. Objectives: The goals of this lab is to. The 62nd Annual Maize Genetics Meeting will be held on March 12-15, 2020, at the Sheraton Kona, Kailua-Kona, Hawaiʻi. This lesson allows students to apply the concept of Mendelian genetics and learn about the double muscling trait found in cattle. LAB 9 - Principles of Genetic Inheritance Overview In this laboratory you will learn about the basic principles of genetic inheritance, or what is commonly referred to as "genetics". Background information: The corn seeds used in this experiment are the F2. We were to first count the amount of each phenotype per corn, on the mono hybrid crosses. Email your LAB teacher via Skedula if you do not know how to access the lab. This is a complete genetics lab for advanced high school classes or introductory college-level classes. Add 900 µL of Edwards’buffer to each tube containing the ground sample. LAB 12: MENDELIAN GENETICS AND INHERITANCE PATTERNS pp. Purple color and smooth texture are dominant traits, whereas yellow color and wrinkled texture are recessive traits. indd 1 1/11/17 1:05 PM. Genetics and Chi-square Problem Set Page 2 3. It’s no surprise that the study of genetics is a complex field. These genes are located in the DNA, which is of course in the nucleus. (Monsanto has a 1 percent market share. Laboratory 8: Mendelian Genetics Overview In this lab exercise, you will learn to predict the outcome of monohybrid (one gene), dihybrid (two gene), and trihybrid (three gene) genetic crosses between individual fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster). Mendelian Genetics in Corn INTRODUCTION Mendelian traits refer to phenotypical features whose pattern of inheritance follows Mendel’s theories about the inheritance of traits. He crossed between a pea plant that has yellow colour and round shape and one that has green colour and wrinkled shape seeds. As a preview to the future unit on plant reproduction, note that corn make two distint types of flowers - one male (seen by the tassels) and one female (seen by the silks). Describe how crossing over results in genetic recombination and infer the relative position of a set of linked alleles. Beginning students of biology always learn about Mendelian genetics. The first one is an analysis of the results from a monohybrid cross and I will walk you though it very slowly. Mendelian inheritance using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster - the principle of segregation and the principle of ind ependent assortment. Gregor Mendel created two main laws prior to his experiments with his growing pea plants. Category Observed Expected Deviation d d2 d2 / e 3/4 16 3/4 x 20 = 15 +1 1 1/15 = 0. This cereal grain was first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. These are the Dilute genes. Complete the Cats Genetics Lab. Segregation occurs because each gamete inherits only one copy of each chromosome. Materials. In corn, the dominant gene R, determines the presence of colored aleurone. There is big news in the world of biotechnology! In 2015, the Food and Drug. Mendel noticed a 3:1 ratio in pod color. The end goal is producing food, fuel and fiber in a more efficient and economical way for the benefit of people and the environment around the world. New focus issue on plant virology ! Given the importance of and rapid research progress in plant virology in recent years, Phytopathology emphasized virological advances in its Fundamental Aspects of Plant Viruses focus issue, which is available now. MENDELIAN GENETICS PROBLEMS AND ANSWERS PROBLEM 1. What he discovered was that there are 7 inheritable traits. Finally, students will match 5 genetic disorders. Each chromosome has only one copy of each gene; therefore each gamete only gets one allele. Whether testing for cardiomyopathy or other Mendelian genetic disorders highly penetrant pathogenic variants, the ACMG guidelines provides a structured set of criteria for evaluating the evidence that a given detected NGS variant is pathogenic for a specific disorder. Genetics Here you'll find a wealth of resources and information aimed at helping educators bring genetics, bioscience and health alive in the classroom. 233 Corn Research jobs available on Indeed. coli Genome Sequenced The lab mouse is valuable for genetics research because humans and mice share almost all of their genes, and the genes on average are 85% identical. Dihybird Cross Punnett Squares - genetic probability with two traits. (No; some of the offspring were tall, and some were short. Answers Lab 9 Mendelian Genetics. by Heather Landry Summary: The vast diversity in gene sequences are what create the large variety of plants and animals we see today. Corn has been modified to resist the corn borer, a common crop pest, or to resist drought. We now know that inheritance is much more complex, usually involving many genes that interact in varied ways. The common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) has spread across North America with its unique hitchhiking, seed-bearing bur. This is a guide to online resources about genetics, which are aimed. S-1 CarolinaTM Exploring Mendelian Genetics for AP Biology To develop new crops with improved growth, taste, and storage characteristics, plant breeders cross plants with desirable traits to one another in an effort to incorporate the desired characteristics into one plant. However, the biological mechanisms behind the association are not fully understood, particularly the role of DNA methylation, which is known to be affected by smoking. _____ The law states that each organism contains two alleles for each trait, and the alleles segregate during the formation of gametes. ” I loved the activity and decided to make one Halloween themed. 5 out of 5 by 2. Bill Alexander Ford 2 October 17, 2003 Introduction: Genetics is a widely used systematic and mathematical science that is used to inherently show the probability of the possible genotypes and phenotypes of a parent’s offspring. Mendelian Genetics Overheads. So what is punnett square?. Biology 2 Lab 1 Mendelian Genetics for Segregation of a Dihybrid Cross in Corn Virtual Corn Lab - Duration: How Mendel's pea plants helped us understand genetics. Students first conduct crosses to determine the relationships between four different coat color alleles. In corn, the dominant gene R, determines the. ) in their offspring. What is paper chromatography? 4. In this investigation, students will. To know how to complete a Punnett square to estimate phenotypic and genotypic ratios in offspring. Genetic inheritance is a basic principle of genetics and explains how characteristics are passed from one generation to the next. You will be given an ear of corn was produced by a dihybrid cross involving two pairs of heterozygous genes resulting in a. 3/23 - We will begin working on chapter 11. What is the probability, in percent, that a single coin toss will result in heads? In tails?. Using a chi-squared test, the observed phenotypic ratios were compared to Mendelian ratios to see if the ratios matched. Segregation occurs because each gamete inherits only one copy of each chromosome. Prepare your students for medical and lab tech careers with Carolina's wide range of equipment, kits and models. AP BIOLOGY WEBLABS - This site has a virtual lab on each of the "dirty dozen" AP Biology labs. APS Image Database—Disease Snapshots. Check your answers. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Traditionally flies have been raised in quarter-pint milk bottles, using a well-ripened banana as food, although more often a corn-meal agar mixture is now used. His work demonstrated that these traits were heritable—and also proved that they could be altered by human intervention. As a preview to the future unit on plant reproduction, note that corn make two distint types of flowers - one male (seen by the tassels) and one female (seen by the silks). Software at sciencecourseware. Now, more than a century later, Mendel's. BIO 120L M6 Mendelian Genetics Lab Report. With a focus on compassionate patient care and innovative scientific advancement, here at the Greenwood Genetic Center, we keep every patient and their families at the. From these experiments, Mendel formulated what is now known as Mendel's law of segregation. I divide it up by Mendelian Genetics and Human Genetics. A monk, Mendel discovered the basic principles of heredity through experiments in his monastery's garden. Genetics Problems (basic) Chi Square Analysis. Yeast Lab – make crosses; Genetics Practice Problems – new one from honors biology; Ch 14 Notes: 12/4-5: Ch 14 Reading Quiz Topic 5. Genetics of Corn SHORT ANSWER Experiment 1: A Monohybrid Cross Directions: Use complete sentences and bold the answers and have them in a different color. To practice, learn and utilize genotypic and phenotypic terminology and ratios. An introduction to fruit flies This guide is adapted from the University of Arizona Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics General Biology Program for Science Teachers: Drosophila Melanogaster and Mendelian Genetics, by Pete Geiger. Chapter 33 Questions HERE These questions are due by Tuesday March 17th at the latest! Chapter 33 Powerpoint HERE. We will now consider a dihybrid cross, which is a combination of the two monohybrids. 2) Study for a Quiz on Kingdoms sometime late next week (make cue cards!!) PERIOD 3. Mendel and Darwin. 1-Read about one trait crosses and the Law of Segregation Pg. Data from sample counts are given below for comparison. Mendel’s laws (principles) of segregation and independent assortment are both explained by the physical behavior of chromosomes during meiosis. Please click on the drop-down menu below and determine if your organization is present. Standard 2a: ___is the production of offspring by one parent without the joining of a sperm or egg. Complete the Cats Genetics Lab. (3) Read the entire lectured chapters of chapters 1-8 for exams. Complete "Designing and conducting your Investigation" section page 49- answer all bullet-ed elements on page 50 for the gene you are. Some of the worksheets displayed are Genetics practice problems, Genetics work, Genetics questions work, Genetics work hfe normal hfe, Genetics problems work answers, Introduction to genetics cloze work, The basics and beyond an introduction to heredity, Exploring genetics across the middle school science and. McCorkell Abstract The purpose of this study was to cross and analyze the reciprocal crosses of wild flies and mutant flies. Corn — a diploid organism — has been widely used to study and illustrate mendelian traits. If two phenotypically normal tigers that are heterozygous at this locus were mated, what percentage of their offspring will be cross-eyed? What percentage will be white? 2. A great time saver ! MCGRAW-HILL VIRTUAL LABS - The McGraw Hill virtual lab is great — just print off the post lab questions and tables and have students complete the lab. Understanding the evolutionary capacity of populations to adapt to novel environments is one of the major pursuits in genetics. org PSI Biology Mendelian Genetics & Inheritance Patterns. is carried only by females in this family b. Consultations take place at one of the Greenwood Genetic Center offices. • Allow class to decide how many kernels each group should score for color (only accept answers of 50 or more kernels). 1 Ear of corn derived from Rr Susu x Rr Susu cross 1 Ear of corn derived from Rr Susu x rrsusu cross 1 Ear of corn derived from an unknown cross ks INTRODUCTION This week in lab, you will examine the offspring of a real genetic cross involving two alleles of two different genes in com. Welcome to your third Genetics Workshop. We now know that inheritance is much more complex, usually involving many genes that interact in varied ways. This can be done as a lab or can just be used as a PowerPoint presentation on Genetics and/or Meiosis. HW: Guided Note taking worksheet for Chapter 10, sec. Nearly all soy and corn in the US is now the ‘Round-up Ready’ variety that was genetically modified to be resistant to the weed-killer Round-up. BIO 121 LAB INSTRUCTIONS Lab 9 - Mendelian Genetics. For the questions you still did not answer, highlight or. In non-homologous regions of sex chromosomes, the genotypes of the genes contain only one allele (even in the case of the XX karyotype, in women, one of the X chromosomes is inactive). Thus, crossing a purebred tall pea plant with a purebred short pea plant should result in. Your corn is most likely one of two crosses. To answer these questions, Mendel performed an experiment to follow two different genes as they passed from one generation to the next. To build comprehension of Mendelian genetics by analyzing test crosses in corn To study human chromosomes and understand the consequences of chromosomal abnormalities that occur during meiosis Lab Background: Mitosis is the mechanism by which the chromosomes of eukaryotes are. In this experiment, our group will study genetics of fruit flies. • The number of chromosomes in ONE COPY of the genome in any given cell is n. Dihybrid Cross in Corn INTRODUCTION: A dihybrid cross is a cross between individuals that involves two pairs of contrasting traits. Genetics Problems (basic) Chi Square Analysis. The Amazing Maize Investigating Dihybrid Crosses About this Lesson This activity can be used to supplement a unit on genetics. Greater the recombination percentage between two genes, more is the distance between them and vice versa. Mendel's Experiments. The non-GM corn field has not been sprayed with glyphosate for at least five years (see Table 1). The topic of the lab, Switchgrass germination, will also give students a better understanding of plant biology and biofuels. Show the Punnett square for this cross below (*Hint — look at the percentages from your data table and compare them to the Punnett squares from the pre-lab to help you determine the genotype of the. ): (Note: This procedure describes the addition of sterile water to your cultures in order to achieve fertilization of eggs by sperm. A) How well does this sample fit a 3:1 ratio? Support your answer using Chi-square analysis. At the end of the timed period, review the list with the class to make sure that all thoughts were captured. • Bee sticks for pollination • Digital cameras to record the investigation • Plastic magnifiers • Laboratory notebook Timing and Length of Lab. Brewer Middle School - Greenwood, South Carolina. The answers to the following questions will guide you to further critical thinking about your project topic and will build knowledge to help answer questions your classmates may ask when you make your presentation. This cereal grain was first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. Genetic traits are determined by genes, or small segments of DNA carried on chromosomes that determine physical characteristics. Lab Activity Report: Mendelian Genetics - PTC Testing Background: PTC testing is a method used to test for a genetic trait. The use of other varieties of corn may or may not yield the correct phenotypicratios. Note: Carolina's genetic corn is pollinated, grown, and harvested under controlled conditions. Week 12 (Nov 6 - 10) Mendelian Genetics. To engage students in this lesson they complete a quick read of an article dealing with selective breeding. The expected ratio is 3:1 for a total of 4. Students build their understanding of selective breeding for desired traits in crops such as corn. Father of Genetics. Glossary of Terms. Describe how crossing over results in genetic recombination and infer the relative position of a set of linked alleles. Safety and Housekeeping This laboratory investigation, especially Parts 1, 3, and 4, has a few safety concerns. Unit 4: Mendelian Genetics. First we will use Punnett square diagrams to predict the results of various monohybrid crosses. Explore the role of proteins in creating phenotypes. 2 - Using Mathematics. Genetics of corn lab (Dihybrid cross) Genetics of corn lab (Dihybrid cross) Skip navigation Sign in. " Certain exotic strains of maize better handle drought or waterlogging or low-nitrogen soil, for example. ) in their offspring. org allows for multiple matings and statistical analysis. What proportion of purple kernels is expected in the progeny of the monohybrid cross in Experiment 1? 2. Download Answers Lab 9 Mendelian Genetics. The ratio one actually finds when flipping a coin or counting corn kernels probably is typically not exactly the probability one might predict. 1- Mendelian Genetics of Corn Domestic corn (Zea mays) is ideal for dem-onstrating the principles of inheritance. Genetics and heredity I. The Chi Square is a statistical test used to judge the goodness of fit of an observed distribution to a theoretical distribution. The students wanted to know how could they determine if glucose diffused out of the. In their data table, students should predict the genotype and phenotype of the offspring. Gregor Mendel, known as the "father of modern genetics," was born in Austria in 1822. Human Inheritance Exhibition. Gregor Mendel created two main laws prior to his experiments with his growing pea plants. An average yeast gene is about 1,400 base pairs long, and the longest yeast gene is 14,700 base pairs. Homozygous means that both copies of a gene or locus match while heterozygous means that. These four grain phenotypes are produced by the 2 pairs of heterozygous genes (P & p and S & s) located on 2 pairs of homologous chromosomes, each gene on a separate chromosome. By counting the number of corn kernels by color and texture, we were able to make inferences about the hereditary information (alleles) which were passed down from the parents. Genetics Analysis and Genomic Prediction of Complex Traits in Maize (2016) - Duration: 55:12. There are two quizzes on Day 104. Data from sample counts are given below for comparison. Choose your answer to the question and click 'Continue' to see how you did. To engage students in this lesson they complete a quick read of an article dealing with selective breeding. In a monohybrid cross, organisms differing in only one trait are crossed. Greater the recombination percentage between two genes, more is the distance between them and vice versa. It covers the basics of mendelian genetics, including segregation and independent assortment of alleles, dominance, genotype and phenotype, expected ratios, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, and chi-square. 4 years ago. Corn Lab; Due next time you are in class (Tuesday 1/5 or Wednesday 3/6). Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. With a focus on compassionate patient care and innovative scientific advancement, here at the Greenwood Genetic Center, we keep every patient and their families at the. Department of Agriculture (USDA) for use, primarily in processed. Gregor Mendel is famous for discovering “particulate inheritance” or the idea that hereditary elements are passed on in discrete units rather than “blended” together at each new generation. Overview This kit has been designed for use as an introductory college-level genetics lab or, alternatively, as a high school honors, college -preparatory, or AP Biology lab. Product Highlights Uncover and experience the mechanism of Mendelian genetics with Wisconsin Fast Plants® Connected to Unit 5: Heredity, topic 5. Corn Genetics, DATA collection and Chi-Square analysis (ppt). The answers to the following questions will guide you to further critical thinking about your project topic and will build knowledge to help answer questions your classmates may ask when you make your presentation. Objective: In this lab, you will germinate and grow F2 corn seeds to determine the inheritance pattern of the albino trait and determine what the P and F2 generation's genotype must have been. In fact, Mendelian inheritance patterns are exceedingly rare, especially in humans. A monohybrid cross involves the crossing of individuals and the examination of a single character (flower color or seed color or pod shape, etc. Mendel Genetics Lesson Plans. 5 Genetics (pdf) ( Owls)Reading essentials c. Dragon Genetics Lab-Principles of Mendelian Genetics For Teachers 9th In this Mendelian genetics worksheet, students answer a variety of questions about Mendel's experiments and discoveries and they practice determining probability of outcomes in pea. Trim away any empty lanes of the gel with a knife or razor blade. Mendel tracked the segregation of parental genes and their appearance in the offspring as dominant or recessive traits. C all medium height plants. Human Inheritance Exhibition. 4 Non-Mendelian Genetics Topic 5. coli Genome Sequenced The lab mouse is valuable for genetics research because humans and mice share almost all of their genes, and the genes on average are 85% identical. Sample Lab 1 Report - 1 Biol 213L: Genetics Lab (Fall 2000) Sample Lab Report for Lab 1 Even those of you who just answered the questions no doubt noticed that if you strung those answers together and added the appropriate headings, you'd get something very close to a real lab report. Ultimately, our hypothesis was supported as seen through our group ratio of 7:2:2:1 which strongly reflects the expected.